what percentage of energy in a particular trophic level is passed on to the next trophic level?

An example of a community is

one giant individual kelp.
a kelp forest plus all of the physical factors affecting it.
all physical factors affecting a kelp forest.
a kelp forest plus all organisms living in it.
several giant kelp individuals living in one particular area.
Question 2 of 25 Competitive exclusion can be best defined as

when one species overcompetes and eliminates another.
the creation of a separate ecological niche by a new species.
the division of resources.
when one species shares limiting resources with another.
when competition results in the elimination of particular limiting resources.
Question 3 of 25 The ecological niche of a species refers to which of the following?

Position of the organism in the food web
Role in the community
Mode of reproduction and food habits
Behavior in relation to other species in the community
Question 4 of 25 Zooxanthellae live within the tissues of corals, and both organisms benefit from the association. This is known as

facultative symbiosis.
Question 5 of 25 Which of the following best describes cleaning symbiosis?

Both partners are not harmed.
Both are harmed if one closely studies their association.
Both have coevolved into a close association
One is harmed while the other is not.
One species benefits while the other is unaffected.
Question 6 of 25 The difference between food webs and food chains is that food webs

consist of only one trophic level.
include primary producers as well as consumers.
do not take into account predators.
only outline feeding relationships among consumers.
are more complex.
Question 7 of 25 The next level in a food web beyond the producers would be the

top predators.
secondary consumers.
primary consumers.
Question 8 of 25 Which of the following could be a tertiary consumer?

Question 9 of 25 On average, what percentage of energy in a particular trophic level is passed on to the next trophic level?

Question 10 of 25 Detritus in the water includes

dead organic matter.
waste products dissolved in water.
smallest plankton-feeding fishes.
smallest algae.
Question 11 of 25 A fundamental role of decomposers is

releasing nutrients to be used by autotrophs.
causing diseases.
providing food for carnivores.
releasing oxygen.
providing energy for autotrophs.
Question 12 of 25 Net primary productivity is best defined as the

total amount of biomass created by producers.
total amount of biomass created by producers after energy loss to metabolism is factored.
total biomass of producers in the water in a given habitat.
total biomass of producers in the ocean.
None of the above.
Question 13 of 25 The amount of chlorophyll in the water is a direct estimate of

primary production.
standing stock of phytoplankton.
oxygen utilization.
release of nutrients.
Question 14 of 25 In the carbon cycle, seaweeds and plants play a fundamental role by

increasing the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide as a result of decomposition.
decreasing the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide as a result of respiration.
increasing the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide as a result of photosynthesis.
decreasing the amount of detritus.
both increasing the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide as a result of respiration, and decreasing it as a result of photosynthesis.
Question 15 of 25 Nitrogen fixation is performed at sea by

All of the above choices are correct.
Question 16 of 25 Which of the following is an example of intraspecific competition?

Two species of barnacles competing for space on a rocky shoreline
Two species of dolphins feeding on the same population of fish
Two individuals in a population of clownfish attempting to use the same anemone as habitat
Two species of fish attempting to use the same rocky ledge as habitat
Two species of seals fighting over space on a beach to rear their young
Question 17 of 25 A population’s carrying capacity is

affected by the growth rate of the population.
the number of individuals a habitat can support with available resources.
a constant that has been predetermined for all habitats.
the number of individuals in a habitat.
determined by comparing birth rate and death rate in a population.
Question 18 of 25 In competitive exclusion, which of the following is true?

Two species cannot coexist in a habitat.
One species is a better competitor for resources.
It leads to intraspecific competition.
It results from intraspecific completion.
It leads to population growth for both competitors.
Question 19 of 25 In a salt marsh, a fish eats decaying material from around the base of Spartina grass plants. A snail scrapes algae from the stalks of the Spartinagrass. These species can coexist because they have which of the following?

The same niche, but different habitat
The same habitat and the same niche
The same habitat, but different niche
Different habitats and different niches
None of the above
Question 20 of 25 Which of the following gasses is NOT considered to be a major greenhouse gas?

Carbon dioxide
Water vapor
Nitrous oxide
Question 21 of 25 The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide is a direct result of ___________________.

too many marine animals dying
rising sea levels along the coast
human activities
predation on coral reefs
Question 22 of 25 Significant consequences of global warming include_____________.

rising sea levels
plants flowering sooner in the year
penguins moving closer to the South Pole
an increase in coral bleaching
All of the above
Question 23 of 25 Which of the following is a direct chemical consequence of rising carbon dioxide levels in oceans?

There will be more water.
More phytoplankton will be found near shorelines.
Populations of large mammals will increase.
Acidification of the oceans.
Coral reefs will flourish.
Question 24 of 25 Which of the following is NOT likely to happen as global warming continues?

More water vapor will enter the atmosphere.
Sea levels will fall exposing more coral reefs.
The Great Ocean Conveyor circulation will be disrupted.
Greenland could melt.
Methane could be released from ocean sediments.
Question 25 of 25 Excessive algae growth as a result of increased nitrogen in water is referred to as _________________.

Nitrogen fixation

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