What is a gene?

Exam Name___________________________________

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1) What is a gene? A) a type of eukaryotic cell B) an organelle that houses DNA C) a type of prokaryotic cell D) a type of animal cell E) a unit of heredity

2) Which of the following is a scientific conclusion based on knowing that humans and bacteria share a common genetic language?

A) Humans and bacteria have the same number of genes. B) Humans and bacteria share a common ancestor. C) The cells of both humans and bacteria store their DNA in a

nucleus. D) The same genetic code was created for humans as for bacteria. E) Bacteria will eventually develop into humans.

3) What is the difference between discovery science and hypothesis-driven science?

A) There is no difference between them. B) Discovery science involves predictions about outcomes, whereas

hypothesis-driven science involves tentative answers to specific questions.

C) Discovery science is based on deductive reasoning, whereas hypothesis-driven science is based on inductive reasoning.

D) Discovery science leads from the specific to the general, whereas hypothesis-driven science leads from the general to the specific.

E) Discovery science “discovers” new knowledge, whereas hypothesis-driven science does not.

4) What are eukaryotic genes composed of? A) A B) RNA C) C D) G E) DNA

5) Which of the following is a producer? A) dog B) sun C) cat D) earthworm E) house plant

6) Which of these is a hypothesis? A) My car is too old to function properly. B) If my car does not start and I recharge the battery, then my car will

start. C) What is wrong with my car? D) My car’s battery is dead. E) My car will not start.

7) What is the difference between a tissue and an organ system? A) A tissue cannot exist unless it is a component of an organ system,

whereas an organ system can exist independently of tissues. B) Tissues are not considered to be living, whereas organ systems are

considered to be living. C) The tissue level of organization is more inclusive than the organ

system level. D) Tissues are not composed of cells; organ systems are composed of

cells. E) An organ system includes tissues.

8) Adjacent water molecules are connected by the ______. A) sharing of electrons between the hydrogen of one water molecule

and the oxygen of another water molecule B) sharing of electrons between hydrogens of adjacent water

molecules C) electrical attraction between the hydrogens of adjacent water

molecules D) sharing of electrons between adjacent oxygen molecules E) electrical attraction between the hydrogen of one water molecule

and the oxygen of another water molecule

9) An atom with an electrical charge is a(n) ______. A) ion B) compound C) molecule D) radioisotope E) isotope

10) Sugar dissolves when stirred into water. The sugar is the ______, the water is the ______, and the sweetened water is the ______.

A) solution . . . solute . . . solvent B) solvent . . . solute . . . solution C) solution . . . solvent . . . solute D) solute . . . solvent . . . solution E) solvent . . . solution . . . solute

Please read the following scenario to answer the following question(s).

The last few miles of the marathon are the most difficult for Heather, her hair plastered to her head, sweat clinging to her arms, and her legs already feeling as if they had nothing left, just dead weight. After grabbing a cup of ice water, she feels the ice cubes smash against her nose as she gulps some cool refreshment and keeps on running. In these last few miles, the breeze kicks up and she finally feels some coolness against her skin. Drips of sweat, once clinging to her forehead, now spill down, and Heather feels more pain as the sweat flows into her eyes.

11) Sweat remained on Heather’s forehead and arms because of the ______. A) high evaporative cooling effect of water B) cohesive nature of water C) ability of water to act as a solvent D) high salt content of sweat E) ability of water to moderate heat

12) The hydrogens and oxygen of a water molecule are held together by _____ bonds.

A) osmotic B) ionic C) hydrogen D) covalent E) hydrolytic

13) In the following reaction, what type of bond is holding the two atoms together? K + Cl → K+ + Cl— → KCl

A) hydrophilic B) ionic C) hypertonic D) covalent E) hydrophobic

14) Which of the following elements, essential to life, is a trace element? A) sulfur B) iodine C) calcium D) hydrogen E) phosphorus

15) The consumption of sugar is a major cause of ______. A) gout B) cancer C) rheumatoid arthritis D) acne E) tooth decay

16) A friend of yours appears to have put on a lot of muscle very quickly, and at the same time you notice that your friend has become very irritable and depressed. It is reasonable for you to suspect that your friend has begun to take ______.

A) ephedra B) amino acid supplements C) protein powder D) creatine E) an anabolic steroid

17) A protein’s function is dependent on its ______. A) size B) temperature C) shape D) pH E) weight

18) The linear sequence of monomers in a polypeptide chain is referred to as its ______ structure.

A) tertiary B) pentamerous C) secondary D) primary E) quaternary

19) Amino acids consist of ______. A) a central hydrogen, a nitrogen atom, an amino group, and a

carboxyl group B) a central nitrogen, a carbon atom, an amino group, and a carbonyl

group C) a central hydrogen, a nitrogen atom, a hydroxyl group, and a

carbonyl group D) a central carbon, a hydrogen atom, a hydroxyl group, and a

carbonyl group E) a central carbon, a hydrogen atom, an amino group, and a carboxyl


20) Saturated fats are saturated with ______. A) hydrogen B) oxygen C) carbon D) phosphorus E) nitrogen

21) Proteins are polymers constructed from ______ monomers. A) 5-carbon ring B) nucleotide C) hydrocarbon D) amino acid E) peptide

22) Tay-Sachs disease results from ______ lacking a specific type of lipid- digesting enzyme.

A) the Golgi apparatus B) mitochondria C) lysosomes D) the endoplasmic reticulum E) the plasma membrane

23) When mixed with water, phospholipids spontaneously form membranes because they ______.

A) have hydrophilic phosphate groups that are attracted to water and hydrophobic fatty acid tails that avoid water

B) are capable of violating the second law of thermodynamics C) do not spontaneously form membranes when mixed with water D) have hydrophilic phosphate groups that are attracted to their

hydrophobic fatty acid tails E) have hydrophilic fatty acid tails that are attracted to water and

hydrophobic phosphate groups that avoid water

24) When using a light microscope to view a cell you obtained from scraping under your fingernails, you notice that the cell lacks a nucleus; therefore, you conclude that the cell must be a type of ______ cell.

A) fungal B) plant C) prokaryotic D) animal E) eukaryotic

25) Based on its function in detoxifying drugs, you would expect to find a large amount of smooth ER in ______ cells.

A) lung B) brain C) muscle D) liver E) intestinal

26) In plant cells, ______ contain organic nutrients, pigments, and poisons. A) ribosomes B) mitochondria C) chloroplasts D) lysosomes E) central vacuoles

27) In eukaryotic cells, what name is given to the region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane?

A) nucleoplasm B) cytosol C) gene D) phospholipid bilayer E) cytoplasm

Read the following scenario to answer the following question(s).

The earliest cells detectable in fossils were different from the cells in animals, plants, fungi, and protists living today. These first prokaryotic cells gave rise to eukaryotic cells approximately 1.7 billion years ago. The structure of eukaryotic cells today suggests how they might have evolved from their prokaryotic ancestors. Scientists examining mitochondria and chloroplasts now think that these organelles were probably free-living prokaryotes before becoming a part of eukaryotic cells long ago.

28) What evidence suggests that mitochondria might have evolved before chloroplasts?

A) Some mitochondria have chloroplasts inside of them. B) Almost all eukaryotes have mitochondria but only some cells have

chloroplasts. C) A double membrane surrounds mitochondria and a single

membrane surrounds chloroplasts. D) Only mitochondria have their own DNA. E) Mitochondria can sometimes divide to produce chloroplasts.

29) A cell that neither gains nor loses water when it is immersed in a solution is ______.

A) isotonic to its environment B) metabolically inactive C) hypertonic to its environment D) hypotonic to its environment E) dead

30) Ozygen crosses a plasma membrane by ______. A) phagocytosis B) pinocytosis C) active transport D) osmosis E) passive transport

31) Facilitated diffusion across a biological membrane requires ______ and moves a substance ______ its concentration gradient.

A) energy and transport proteins . . . down B) transport proteins . . . against C) transport proteins . . . down D) energy and transport proteins . . . against E) energy . . . down

32) Which component of the following reaction is the substrate? lactose + lactase + water → lactase + glucose + fructose

A) lactose B) fructose C) glucose D) lactase E) There is no substrate in this reaction.

33) The energy of motion is ______ energy. A) potential B) created C) stored D) conserved E) kinetic

34) In a hypotonic solution, an animal cell will _____. A) experience turgor B) shrivel C) neither gain nor lose water D) lyse E) lose water

35) An enzyme’s function is dependent on its ______. A) size B) shape C) weight D) pH E) temperature

36) The final electron acceptor of aerobic respiration is ______. A) ATP B) lactic acid C) oxygen D) carbon dioxide E) NAD+

37) Aerobic means with ______. A) oxygen B) carbon dioxide C) ATP D) carbohydrate E) light

38) Where in the cell does glycolysis occur? A) cytosol B) within the fluid just inside the inner mitochondrial membrane C) along the outside of the outer mitochondrial membrane D) ER E) between the inner and outer mitochondrial membrane

39) In metabolic terms, dogs are best described as ______. A) obligate aerobes B) facultative anaerobes C) obligate anaerobes D) facultative aerobes E) producers

40) The functioning of an electron transport chain is analogous to ______. A) a canoe going over a waterfall B) playing Ping-Pong C) a person leaping from the top to the bottom of a flight of stairs in

one jump D) a Slinky toy going down a flight of stairs E) a person climbing a flight of stairs one step at a time

41) Some friends are trying to make wine in their basement. They’ve added yeast to a sweet grape juice mixture and have allowed the yeast to grow. After several days they find that sugar levels in the grape juice have dropped, but there’s no alcohol in the mixture. The most likely explanation is that ______.

A) the mixture needs less sugar; high sugar concentrations stimulate cellular respiration, and alcohol is not a by-product of cellular respiration

B) the mixture needs more sugar; yeast need a lot of energy before they can begin to produce alcohol

C) the mixture needs less oxygen; yeast only produce alcohol in the absence of oxygen

D) the mixture needs more oxygen; yeast need oxygen to break down sugar and get enough energy to produce alcohol

E) none of the above

42) Large amounts of oxygen gas first appeared in Earth’s atmosphere about ______ years ago.

A) 4.5 billion B) 500 million C) 1.5 billion D) 2.5 billion E) 3.5 billion

Please refer to the accompanying figure to answer the following question(s).

43) One of the compounds that is a direct output of the Calvin cycle is ______.

A) C6H12O6 B) G3P C) O2 D) ATP E) NADPH

44) C4 plants conserve water by ______. A) keeping their stomata closed most of the time B) shuttling CO2 from the Calvin cycle to the water-splitting

photosystem C) growing very deep roots D) incorporating CO2 into RuBP E) running the Calvin cycle at night

45) Which of these colors contributes the least energy to photosynthesis? A) blue B) orange C) violet D) red E) green

46) What is responsible for the yellow-orange coloration of leaves in the fall? A) RuBP B) chlorophyll b C) carotenoids D) chlorophyll a E) phycoerythrin

47) How many molecules of glucose are produced by each cycle of the light reaction?

A) four B) three C) two D) zero E) one

48) Oxygen is highly corrosive; therefore, which of the following would provide definitive evidence of large amounts of O2 in the atmosphere?

A) the presence, in the fossil record, of cells with chloroplasts B) the presence, in the fossil record, of cells with mitochondria C) mass extinction D) rust E) the presence of cyanobacteria in the fossil record

49) In photosynthesis, an H+ ion gradient forms across the ______. A) thylakoid membrane B) inner chloroplast membrane C) endomembrane D) stromal membrane E) outer chloroplast membrane

50) Which of the following is an example of a polysaccharide? A) sucrose B) starch C) maltose D) fructose E) glucose

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