Scientist Research Paper
Lit Review Outline Directions with Examples
Goal: Solution for teen obesity rates
The purpose of this milestone is to begin the process of becoming an expert on your topic.
Begin to brainstorm about a taskforce name for your group
a. Extinction of bees caused by pesticides – The Sting without the Buzz / A Different Kind of Buzz
b. Loss of sustainability through Corporate Ownership– Farmageddon / Make Faming Great Again
c. Plastic Pollution and hormone Disruption: Save the Jugs / Plus Sized Plastic / Bottles Swimmers
2. List out 6 subtopics that will help create a comprehensive review of the literature on your topic. Find at least 15 articles that are related to your topic and specific role. You will need three references for each subtopic. References can be reused for more than one subtopic. Create a literature review outline. For each reference list a minimum of 3 relevant, specific and detailed pieces of information rewritten in your own words, that will be helpful as you progress through the course (relevant statistics, current treatment, legislation, history). 10 of these must be peer reviewed academic journal articles. The more extensive your outline the easier the writing process will be next week. Do more than the minimum.
3. Submit using APA citation for each reference
1. Articles published by non-profit, health, agricultural and environmental organizations or coalitions that are already involved in your topic.
2. Published articles by investigative journals like BBC, PBS, NPR, Huffington Post, the Guardian, New York Times or Washington Post can also help you to get your feet wet. Often these sources reference studies that are peer reviewed or governmental agency reports. Those are the real sources you want.
3. Information on current legislation and laws related to your topic
4. Peer reviewed academic journal articles
ii. Best matches
iii. Click on full free articles
iv. If you find an article of interest , but it is not available, Google the title
b. Library data base
ii. Interlibrary loan- go speak with the librarian about a request
5. Absolutely no dot coms
Topic: Wildfires: Let it burn
Role: Public Health Educator
1. What is a Wildfire? A History on Wildfires.
National Park Service. Wildland Fire: Wildfire Causes. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.nps.gov/fire/wildland-fire/learning-center/fire-in-depth/wildfire- causes.cfm
i. As many as 90 percent of wildland fires in the United States are caused by humans.
ii. Some human-caused fires result from campfires left unattended, the burning of debris, negligently discarded cigarettes and intentional acts of arson.
iii. Scientists found that 33 native plant species in Everglades National Park depend on fire for long-term survival.
iv. Research in Yosemite National Park showed that white fir trees act as ladders that fire can climb to the crowns of giant sequoia trees.
Urban Institute. (2016). Wildfires in the United States (Research report). Washington, DC: Brusentsev, V., & Vroman, W.
i. This study contains graphs and data that analyzes the growth in land and property damage related to extreme wildfires.
ii. Analyzes unexpected before in wildfires in areas like the West South Central, West North Central, Mountain, and Pacific regions.
iii. Federal fire suppression costs averaged $371 million a year during 1985–1989 but $1,548 million a year during 2009–2013.
Morton, D. C., Roessing, M. E., Camp, A. E., & Tyrrell, M. L. (2003). Assessing the Environmental, Social, and Economic Impacts of Wildfire. Retrieved from http://gisf.yale.edu/sites/default/files/files/wildfire_report(1).pdf
i. This study focuses on the economic impacts wildfires have contributed to over the past few decades.
ii. California social impact on wildfires includes, the average cost of homes lost to wildfire is $163 million per year.
iii. Emergency rehabilitation programs allow the rebuilding of federal land after a wildfire.
2. Current Evacuation Plans & Wildfire Response.
National Park Service. (n.d.). Wildland Fire: Fire Suppression. Retrieved from https://www.nps.gov/fire/wildland-fire/learning-center/fire-in-depth/fire- suppression.cfm
i. To suppress wildfire, oxygen, fuel, or fire must be removed.
ii. Details methods firefighters take to assess best possible strategy to suppress fire.
iii. Communication and team work key factors in fire suppression.
USDA. (n.d.). The Fire Danger Rating System. Retrieved from https://www.fs.usda.gov/detail/inyo/home/?cid=stelprdb5173311
i. The National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS) is a system that allows fire managers to estimate today’s or tomorrow’s fire danger for a given area.
ii. Fire dangers are rated from low to extreme.
iii. Measured by fuels, weather, topography and risks.
iv. Engages homeowners of weather conditions as a method to avoid any potential spreading of fires.
FEMA. (2014). How to prepare for a wildfire. Retrieved from https://www.fema.gov/media-library…/how_to_prepare_wildfire_033014_508.pdf
i. Details families can take to prepare themselves for wildfires.
ii. Discusses landscaping zoning, which allow firefighters to combat blazes.
iii. Educates residents on measures they can take to reduce wildfires in their areas.
CHA Hospital Preparedness program. Hospital Evacuation. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.calhospitalprepare.org/evacuation
i. Details common procedures for hospitals in California if there is need for evacuation.
ii. Provides training for emergency scenarios for hospital staff.
iii. No statewide procedure advised, hospital responsible for finding shelter.
3. Effects of Smoke Inhalation
California Wildfires of 2008: Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter Toxicity Wegesser, Teresa C; Pinkerton, Kent E; Last, Jerold A Environmental Health Perspectives; Jun 2009; 117, 6; ProQuest pg. 893
i. Conducts a study on mice to analyze the effects of particle matter on lung function.
ii. Decrease in cell population of neutrophils.
iii. Wildfire particle matter contain chemical factors toxic to the lungs.
USDA. (2013). Wildland Firefighter smoke exposure. Retrieved from https://www.fs.fed.us/t-d/pubs/pdfpubs/pdf13511803/pdf13511803dpi100.pdf
i. Firefighters are exposed carbon monoxide, aldehydes, particulate matter, crystalline silica, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
ii. There are two primary classes of particulates: fine particles with a mean aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers (µm) and coarse particulates which have a mean aerodynamic diameter less than 10 micrometers (PM10).
iii. Analyzes the bodies response when exposed to either fine particles or course particles.
Youssouf, H., Liousse, C., Roblou, L., Assamoi, E., Salonen, R. O., Maesano, C., Annesi- Maesano, I. (2014). Non-accidental health impacts of wildfire smoke. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(11), 11772-11804. Retrieved from https://search-proquest.com.westcoastuniversity.idm.oclc.org/
i. Increase in hospital admissions for respiratory conditions during wildfires.
ii. Analyzes exposure to populations such as the elderly, and pregnant.
iii. Analyzes acute inflammatory effects on firefighters.
4. Climate Change Effects on Wildfires
Abatzoglou, J. T., & Williams, A. P. (2016). Impact of anthropogenic climate change on wildfire across western US forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(42), 11770-11775. doi:10.1073/pnas.1607171113
i. Increased forest fire activity across the western United States in recent decades has contributed to widespread forest mortality, carbon emissions, periods of tainted air quality, and substantial fire suppression expenses.
ii. Climate water deficit, fire danger indices, and increase in vapor pressure deficit create an argument that climate change has impacted wildfires over the past few decades.
iii. Strong correlation between fuel aridity and anthropogenic climate change.
Wotton, B. M., Flannigan, M. D., & Marshall, G. A. (2017). Potential climate change impacts on fire intensity and key wildfire suppression thresholds in Canada. Environmental Research Letters, 12(9), 095003. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aa7e6e
i. An analysis of wildfire activity in Canada over a 20-year time span.
ii. Increase in fireline intensity and dry air.
iii. This trend extends past 2020 to the end of the century.
Forest Foundation. (n.d.). Wildfires and climate change. Retrieved from https://www.forestfoundation.org/wildfires-and-climate-change
i. Description of the effects wildfires have on the climate.
ii. Wildfires emit greenhouse gases and methane.
iii. It takes decades for forests to reach pre-wildfire levels of air quality.
5. Forest Management
The National Strategy: The final phase in the development of the National cohesive wildland fire management strategy. (2014). Retrieved from www.forestsandrangelands.gov/strategy/documents/strategy/CSPhaseIIINationalStr ategyApr2014.pdf
i. In the Federal Land Assistance, Management, and Enhancement Act of 2009 (FLAME Act), Congress mandated the development of a national cohesive wildland fire management strategy to comprehensively address wildland fire management across all lands in the United States.
ii. Three goals of this act include: restore and maintain landscapes, develop fire-adapted communities, and improve wildfire response by making jurisdictions participate in creating and implementing safe, effective, efficient risk-based wildfire management decisions.
iii. Management options include: managing fires for resource objectives, prescribed fires, and fuel treatments using biological or chemical methods.
Alvarez, K., & Gomez, E. (2009). Forest Fires: Detection, Suppression and Prevention. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
i. Discusses the use of polymers to aid firefighters suppress flames.
ii. Superabsorbent polymers hold up to 300-400 times their weight in water.
iii. Details use of computer models to improve track of fires.
Hughes, R., & Mercer, D. (2009). Planning to Reduce Risk: The Wildfire Management Overlay in Victoria, Australia. Geographical Research, 47(2), 124-141. doi:10.1111/j.1745-5871.2008.00556.x
i. Strategies to reduce risk to protected land areas.
ii. Creates methods to reduce wildfire risks in areas most prevalent.
iii. Communication and education are key to resolving wildfire issues.
Simeoni, A & C Owens, Zachary & W Christiansen, Erik & Kemal, Abid & Gallagher, Michael & L Clark, Kenneth & Skowronski, Nicholas & V Mueller, Eric & C Thomas, Jan & Santamaria, Simon & Hadden, Rory. (2017). A preliminary study of wildland fire pattern indicator reliability following an experimental fire. Journal of Fire Sciences. 35. 359-378. 10.1177/0734904117720674.
i. This experiment details fire patterns and their unpredictability.
ii. Climate changes has influenced the predictability of fires.
iii. Fire pattern indicators alone create solid fire management.
6. Firefighter Shortage
USDA. (2010). Forest Service’s Firefighting Succession Planning Process. Retrieved from https://www.usda.gov/oig/webdocs/08601-54-SF.pdf
i. This article discusses firefighter shortages and methods to reduce the problem.
ii. Creates a plan to offset the number of retiring firefighters.
iii. Discusses methods to engage volunteer firefighters.
Lowe, J. (2017). The Incarcerated Women Who Fight California’s Wildfires. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/31/magazine/the-incarcerated-women-who- fight-californias-wildfires.html
i. This article discusses the CDCR program and their employment and training of incarcerated women to combat wildfires.
ii. This program helps with the fire fighter shortage California is experiencing.
iii. The women work for minimal wage; this program does not offer employment to women once they are released.
Geiling, N. (2015). Thousands of Firefighters in California Are Inmates, Being Paid $1 An Hour on The Line. Retrieved from https://thinkprogress.org/thousands-of- firefighters-in-california-are-inmates-being-paid-1-an-hour-on-the-line- 3301b600ff4b/
i. This article again focuses on the inmate program.
ii. The state saves close to 80 million dollars a year for taxpayers.
iii. Inmates cost significantly less than firefighters.
NFPA. (n.d.). Statistics about the fire service. Retrieved from http://www.nfpa.org/News- and-Research/Fire-statistics-and-reports/Fire-statistics/The-fire-service
i. This provides statistics regarding the number of firefighters that are injured on duty.
ii. Provides statistics for volunteer and career firefighters.
iii. Website also provides information regarding safety equipment and safety for firefighters.