primary intervention in disaster planning is the planning prior to the disaster (Davis, et al., 2010). In the case of the Haiti earthquake the disaster was present prior to the actual earthquake. The country was already stricken by poverty. This national poverty lead to infrastructure problems that were difficult for disaster response to overcome.
Managing the problem of impoverished nations infrastructure prior to a disaster would slow the progression of disease after disaster strikes. The healthcare needs of Haiti were not being met prior to the disaster. Hospitals were underfunded and when disaster struck the hospitals and medical facilities that were not built to be earthquake resistant were severely damaged. Funding of proper facilities and education of disaster planning of healthcare workers and the community would have gone a long way in easing the extent of the Haiti disaster.
Tertiary interventions directed at managing this disaster would be funding of programs to improve the economy and lessen the impact of poverty for Haiti. Once immediate healthcare needs are met, the process of rebuilding with a focus on overall improvement of economy so that it is sustainable for the future is needed.
There are many organization and charitable foundations involved in improving the economies and infrastructures of countries to lessen the overall impact of poverty. International Action is a charitable foundation that currently has a focus on bringing clean water to Haiti. They are building sustainable supply of clean water. The organization is working the local population to provide affordable clean water. I would choose to work with this organization because they are making an improvement in an infrastructure that improves health and safety of a basic necessity, clean water.
Primary prevention with patients who experienced the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, would focus on preventing disease from occurring. For Instance, the community health nurse could attempt to prevent patients from breathing in dust, and air contaminants by having them, and staff wear masks. Medical staffing was somewhat scarce, however staff available are to make sure to use universal precautions to ensure that patients are not exposed to illness, and disease, from other patients, by staff who did not take their time to wash their hands properly, and Don gown, and gloves when necessary.
An example of a Secondary Prevention, would be to require staff keep all patient wounds covered and clean. Patients that may have suffered injury, or loss of a limb would need proper wound care. Although, water supplies were limited, making sure that patient wounds are cleaned with peroxide, or betadine, and keeping the wound covered with clean bandages so that patient’s wounds wont’s become infected. Also, if patients skin has been exposed to foreign objects (such a wood or nails) if the patient is not up to date on their shots they may need a tetanus shot or booster. Tertiary intervention would focus on reducing complications of disease. Patients that were suffering from Sepsis would need to be monitored closely, and treated with antibiotics or Patients with fever would be treated with antipyretics.
All three of the proposed interventions listed above fall under the Post Impact Phase. “The post impact phase has to parts, the emergency phase, and the recovery phase” (Mauer, & Smith, 2009 All the above listed interventions happened during the Post Impact Phase. The disaster had already occurred, and these are the steps to be taken after. In a disaster situation, I would work with organizations such as FEMA. FEMA’s (or the Federal Emergency Management Agency) “mission is to help people before, during, and after disasters” (FEMA, 2018)