case reports: 1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)- please review what I have, see below, and make changes/add to if necessary
· 2. Paranoid Schizophrenia- Attached file
Described the major symptoms of each disorder, outlined each person’s background, and described any factors in the person’s background that might predispose him or her to their disorder.
Described any symptoms that were observed that support each diagnosis and any symptoms or behaviors that are inconsistent with each diagnosis and provided relevant information from the case history about the development of each disorder.
Described any evidence of psychosocial or medical issues that might have contributed to each disorder, identified any safety concerns regarding suicidality or homicidality, and discussed any cross-cultural issues affecting the differential diagnosis.
Discussed appropriate short-term and long-term goals of each intervention, discussed the most appropriate therapeutic strategy and therapeutic modality for each case, and presented appropriate reasoning for your selection.
Wrote in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrated ethical scholarship in the accurate representation and attribution of sources; and displayed accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.
Diagnosis: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Symptoms of the disorder: According to the DSM 5 individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder show patterns of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity that interfere with functioning or development: Inattention includes: present for at least 6 months, and they are inappropriate for developmental level:
· Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or with other activities.
· Often has trouble holding attention on tasks or play activities.
· Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly.
· Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (e.g., loses focus, side-tracked).
· Often has trouble organizing tasks and activities.
· Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to do tasks that require mental effort over a long period of time (such as schoolwork or homework).
· Often loses things necessary for tasks and activities (e.g. school materials, pencils, books, tools, wallets, keys, paperwork, eyeglasses, mobile telephones).
· Is often easily distracted
· Is often forgetful in daily activities.
2. Hyperactivity and Impulsivity includes: behavior present for at least 6 months to an extent that is disruptive and inappropriate for the person’s developmental level:
· Often fidgets with or taps hands or feet, or squirms in seat.
· Often leaves seat in situations when remaining seated is expected.
· Often runs about or climbs in situations where it is not appropriate (adolescents or adults may be limited to feeling restless).
· Often unable to play or take part in leisure activities quietly.
· Is often “on the go” acting as if “driven by a motor”.
· Often talks excessively.
· Often blurts out an answer before a question has been completed.
· Often has trouble waiting his/her turn.
· Often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations or games)
In addition, the following conditions must be met:
· Several inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were present before age 12 years.
· Several symptoms are present in two or more setting, (e.g., at home, school or work; with friends or relatives; in other activities).
· There is clear evidence that the symptoms interfere with, or reduce the quality of, social, school, or work functioning.
· The symptoms do not happen only during the course of schizophrenia or another psychotic disorder. The symptoms are not better explained by another mental disorder (e.g. Mood Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, Dissociative Disorder, or a Personality Disorder).
Background: David is a sixteen-year-old male Caucasian in his sophomore year in High School. According to his case history video, he lives mostly with his mom. Based on research, factors in David’s background that may have predisposed him to this disorder include coming from a single parent background, inexperienced parents, biological factors and limited time spent with a parent. David’s mother spends a limited amount of time with him and allows him to spend his time playing sports and video games instead of helping around the house. In most cultures, a variety of skills are taught as a child develops, for example- learning how to wash dishes or put gas in a car. These tasks also teach an individual to be aware and focus on a task until completion. Due to David’s mom, feeling overwhelmed she may have unintentionally reinforced his presenting symptoms of ADHD.
Observation: During the interview, David was constantly fidgeting and moving around. He REPORTs being unable to focus his attention for a given amount of time to complete a task. For example- when his mom asks him to do chores around the house he forgets his tasks. According to the case report David also has issues with demonstrating good judgment. The example given is tearing off the skin to his knuckles when asked to hit a punching bag. The excitement of hitting the punching bag overpowered the pain he may have felt to his hands. His behavior can, therefore, be seen as disorganized and driven which is an element of ADHD.
Symptoms that are inconsistent with the ADHD diagnosis is his ability to spend hours playing sports and video games. David states he enjoys these tasks and spends a couple of hours every day playing. David also reports that the class he has with his girlfriend he has a B+ in. He says he pays attention in that class because it’s important to him. When teachers or his Mom tells him to do a task he won’t do it until they ask him too or uses his charm to get out of a task. Children with ADHD are also less likely to have groups of friends or get involved in after-school activities. This is not true in David’s case. He reports having friends and loves playing sport with his friends at school even though he wishes he was better at it.
It is my opinion that the development of this disorder can be attributed to his upbringing. Inexperienced parents that don’t necessarily have a clear parenting style and therefore allow children to make their own choices to avoid tantrums. David comes from a single parent home, lives with his mother only, which research shows are more susceptible to having a child developing symptoms of ADHD. The diagnosis is also three times more diagnosed in boys than in girls.
Diagnosis: There is no evidence of any medical conditions that might contribute to the development of the disorder at this time. Environmental problems and psychosocial problems stem from his mother being an inexperienced parent that doesn’t enforce behaviors that promote functional development. An example of this is David’s mother allowing him to be off his medication in the summertime. This behavior is not promoting continual wellness but a see-saw effect which can do more harm than good in the long run.